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A universe of beauty, mystery and wonder

Friday, March 11, 2016

STUDY: EUROPEAN AREAS THAT EXPELLED JEWS IN THE MIDDLE AGES STILL HAVE WORSE ECONOMIES THAN THOSE THAT KEPT THEIR JEWS - The history of expulsions and mass slaughter of Jews by Europeans through 2000 years - In spite of it all Jews have contributed disproportionally to their numbers in all fields of culture to a world that hates them

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Image of a theater production of Fiddler on the Roof.
 A representation of Jews in one of the many expulsions they suffered at the hands of Christians, who did not want them in Europe then, and when they return to the State of Israel they call them 'occupiers".  
The only Jews they tolerate are dead Jews.
The historical record.  It happened countless of times in past centuries, over and over again.  A European city or country would be in dire economic straits, so then they would invite Jews to settle there.  They would encourage them to engage in trade, banking, and the few selected enterprises allowed to Jews, the kinds of activities that would raise the prosperity level of that place.
Years passed and, indeed, that city or country - and the head of government - would become wealthier.  At that point the local population would turn resentful and jealous of the Jews' own success, and greedy for their possessions, so they would proceed to expel them - after refusing to repay their loans, confiscating their wealth, and killing quite a few Jews to speed up their departure.
Why did the Jews fall for this trick again and again?  That's hard to explain.  Perhaps it was unrealistic hope born out of desperation.  Maybe this time the acceptance would last, maybe they and future generations would feel they belonged there.
Expulsions were the soft treatment.  During the two thousand years in exile in Europe Jews endured constant discrimination, persecution, forced confinement in ghettos, rapes, torture, pogroms, and brutal slaughter, sometimes with the burning  of Jews alive. 
The Nazis did all that but on an industrial scale, and with typical German efficiency.   They started with expulsions, went through all those mentioned practices, and ended up with murdering six million  of them, many by starvation, disease, gassing and burning.  
Study:  The positive economic effects of Jewish presence in European towns during and after the Middle Ages linger to these days.  Now a scholar has done a study that proves that those areas in Europe that expelled their Jews during the Middle Ages are STILL suffering from comparative economic backwardness, while those that kept their Jews are STILL more prosperous. 
Jews created the banking and commerce infrastructure that allowed those communities that did not expel their Jews to remain economically several steps above those who expelled them.  These effects linger to today, more than 70 years after Jews were almost wiped out from Europe.
(In America too, the cities of New York and San Francisco have deep Jewish roots, and have been at the forefront in the creation of wealth, technical innovation, and a spirit of tolerance.)

Jews were already living in Europe two thousand years ago, when Romans invaded the Land of Israel, destroying the Jewish Temple, slaughtering one and a half million Jews,  and enslaving or expelling the rest.  Then the Romans renamed the land 'Palestine' in an attempt to erase all remnants of Jewish history and life.

Jews could be considered one of the founding nations of Europe - their culture in Europe is much older than those of other nationalities later established in the continent.  

The following article is based on a scholarly study that found that regions of Europe that expelled their Jews have fared economically much worse than those that allowed them to stay.  This effect lingers to this day, even many centuries after the expulsions.  Whatever your sentiments towards Jews, this goes to show that ethnicity counts, that it can change the history and economy of a region and an entire country.

This article does not cover the many other positive effects that Jewish science, philosophy, art, and commerce have had on two millennia of European history.  Western civilization itself was partly built on the moral teachings of Judaism and the Ten Commandments.
Medieval moneylenders (depicted in this painting by Rembrandt) ensured a flow of credit in cities that was not readily available in cities were Jews were expelled. Christian laws forbade the lending of money for interest, so Jews were able to dominate money lending, and in the cities where they remained, leading to the first banks
Medieval moneylenders (depicted in this painting by Rembrandt) ensured a flow of credit in cities that was not readily available in cities were Jews were expelled. Christian laws forbade the lending of money for interest, so Jews were able to dominate money lending, and in the cities where they remained, leading to the first banks.  Money lending was one of a handful of activities that were permitted from Jews, who were forbidden from practicing trades or agriculture.

Expelling Medieval Jews out of European towns damaged the economy... and the effects are still seen TODAY: Regions that expelled them have lower GDP than those that didn't
  • Jewish communities were expelled from cities in the south of Italy in 1503
  • A leading economist argues the impacts of this are still visible today
  • Jews provided a flow of credit in northern cities leading to the first banks
  • This has led to a 10 per cent income gap between north and south Italy
  • Jews were forbidden in Europe from owning land, and practicing regular trades or agriculture - out of fear of competition -  and were relegated to despised activities such as money lending.
  • Further on this page read article on how for 2000 years Jews were resented not so much for religious reasons, but because of their high literacy and work ethic, which led them to outcompete non-Jews in all kinds of activities. 
  • This fear of competition and envy as the basis for anti-Semitic behavior is explained in a recently published book, "Why the Germans, Why the Jews" - and is exposed as the real reason for the Holocaust. 
  • After the Holocaust a few survivors made it back to their former homes in Poland, only to be murdered by the local population who did not want to return their property to them.

  • Effects from Middle Ages expulsions of Jews
    linger to this day 
    Daily Mail - They have suffered a long history of persecution and, in some cases, Jews were actively expelled from entire regions of Medieval Europe.
    But cities that tolerated and allowed Jewish communities to flourish may still be reaping the benefits today, according to a new academic paper.
    It argues that in these areas, Jewish communities were instrumental in the establishment of some of the early banks during the Renaissance and the effects are still noticeable in modern economies.
    Professor Luigi Pascali, an economist at the University of Warwick and Pompeu Fabra University in Barcelona, claims the presence of Jewish moneylenders and pawnbrokers during the 1500s resulted in more credit being available in municipalities.   This flow of cash ensured that productivity and income was able to increase.

    Continue reading.  See also articles on the flight of Jews from Europe TODAY due to Muslim violent anti-Semitism, and other articles related to the Jewish presence and absence from Europe.
    Speaking to MailOnline, Professor Pascali said: 'I argue that cities, in which the local Jewish community in 1500 caused an early development of the banking sector, have more banks today and, because of this, are more developed today.
    'Local banking development has a large causal impact on economic development.
    'In particular, using firm-level data, I show that a higher density of local banks increases aggregate productivity in the manufacturing sector, by reallocating resources towards the most productive firms.
    'This is the main channel through which local banks have an effect on economic development.'

    Medieval Jewish moneylenders (painting of Medieval moneylenders pictured) and pawnbrokers in the northern city states of Italy during the Renaissance set those regions on the course to prosperity. By contrast, cities that expelled the Jews at around this time fell behind and this is still reflected in their economies today

    Medieval Jewish moneylenders (painting of Medieval moneylenders pictured) and pawnbrokers in the northern city states of Italy during the Renaissance set those regions on the course to prosperity. By contrast, cities that expelled the Jews at around this time fell behind and this is still reflected in their economies today
    In his paper, published in The Review of Economics and Statistics, Professor Pascali examines the presence of Jewish communities in Italian cities during the Renaissance.
    In 1503, a large part of the south of Italy, including the Kingdom of Naples fell under the control of the Spanish crown, which had decreed all Jews convert to Christianity or be driven out of its territories.
    However, in the north of the country, which remained either under French control or as independent city states, the Jews were able to remain.
    Here they began establishing moneylending services after the Catholic Church, through several Ecclesiastical Councils, banned the practice of lending to earn a profit among Christians.
    Professor Pascali said: 'Some Jews in Central Italy who had engaged in trade during the Middle Ages had accumulated sizeable fortunes and had both the capital and expertise to become moneylenders.
    'Although the ban on Catholic [money lending] did not prevent the rise of a new class of Catholic merchant bankers, for more than a century the Jews enjoyed a monopoly in lending to the poor and the middle class.
    'By the beginning of the 15th century, the geographic expansion of Jewish lending was complete and had become a general economic phenomenon in all parts of Italy.'
    Jewish pawnbrokers also began to be established in many of the northern cities, ultimately leading to the creation of charitable loan banks, called the Monti di Pieta, in an attempt to drive them out of the market.
    This meant even the poor could access credit if they needed it and these institutions still exist today.
    While there are many that argue the expulsion of the Jews from southern Italy had a negative impact on the prosperity in the region at the time, Professor Pascali claims this can still be seen today.
    By looking at the presence of Jewish communities during the Renaissance and the current economic power of cities today, he claims there is a strong correlation.

    In 1492 the Spanish crown ordered the expulsion of Jews from its kingdom and territories, leading them to be forced out of the cities in the kingdom of Naples and central Italy in the 1500s (illustrated in the map showing the expulsion of Jews in Europe). By contrast, Jewish communities remained in the northern city states

    In 1492 the Spanish crown ordered the expulsion of Jews from its kingdom and territories, leading them to be forced out of the cities in the kingdom of Naples and central Italy in the 1500s (illustrated in the map showing the expulsion of Jews in Europe). By contrast, Jewish communities remained in the northern city states

    According to his study, he estimates if the Jews had not been expelled from the Spanish territories, the GDP in southern Italy would have been seven per cent higher.
    He said the expulsions of the Jews may explain at least 10 per cent of the income gap currently seen in northern and southern Italy.
    Professor Pascali said: 'Although Jewish pawnshops disappeared over time, the Monti di Pietà have survived to the present day and gave rise to a significant portion of contemporary Italian banks.
    'My results confirm that the level of local banking development during the Renaissance (proxied by the presence of a Monte di Pietà or a Jewish pawnshop) had strong causal effects on the current availability of credit in Italian municipalities.'
    He added similar trends to those that occurred in Italy will also likely to have happened in other countries in Europe when Jewish communities were expelled in the Middle Ages.


    • The prosperous northern Italian region of Lombardy became a byword for a type of banking that grew out of mount of piety style pawnshops which originated in the region.
    • A ruling by Pope Leo the Great forbade charging interest on loans on the basis getting profit on money without working was sinful.
    • However, the Talmud allowed loans to be converted into investments so interest could accrue from them.
    • Although Jews were not allowed to hold land, they would instead trade in crops. 
    • This allowed them to lend to farmers against crops in their fields.
    • As the skills needed for bookmaking were passed down within Jewish families, they were able to keep this trade within the community.
    • This led to the establishment of merchant banks and led to the establishment of powerful banking families.
    • Lombard banks quickly spread to other cities in northern Italy and even in to the Papal states.
     The Alhambra Decree (pictured) was issued by the Spanish Crown in 1492, stating that all Jews were to convert to Christianity or be expelled from the territories of Spain. Professor Pascali argues this led to a decline in prosperity across much of Europe where the Jewish communities were expelled

    The Alhambra Decree (pictured) was issued by the Spanish Crown in 1492, stating that all Jews were to convert to Christianity or be expelled from the territories of Spain. Professor Pascali argues this led to a decline in prosperity across much of Europe where the Jewish communities were expelled





    Why the Germans? Why the Jews?
    "Why the Germans, Why the Jews?"
    and "The Embrace of Unreason"

    TWO BOOKS explore the European pathology of Jew hatred, as based on an underlying sense of European inferiority to Jewish talent and achievements

    Europeans say so. In their own words



    September 2015 - French Economy Minister visits Israel to beg French Jews to return to France.
    Jews have been leaving France  in droves due to murderous attacks on Jews by French Muslim terrorists.  Their absence has affected the French economy.
    French Economy Minister  Emmanuel Macron (R)

    French Jews' mass aliyah (immigration) to Israel has impacted the French business world - so much so that the French Economy Minister himself has invested in bringing back Jewish talent. 
    French Economy Minister Emmanuel Macron visited the DLD Tel Aviv Digital Conference at the old train station on Tuesday, where he met with several prominent Israeli businessmen. 
    But more than strengthening economic ties between countries, Macron's visit is part of a larger agenda to stop brain drain.
    “A lot of these people have energy, vitality. They want to create jobs, startups, and innovate here,” Macron said in an interview with the Wall Street Journal on Tuesday. “They can innovate as well in France." 

    Read more


    Economically ailing Spain wants its Jews back
    It offers citizenship to descendants of the Jews it expelled in 1492.

    More than atoning for a past injustice, the Spanish government is more interested in improving the faltering economy of the country by bringing in hard-working and innovative Jews.
    The measure, championed by the center-right government, grants dual citizenship rights for Jews with Spanish ancestry, who are known as Sephardic Jews.
    In recent generations the term has been used to refer to all Jews of Mediterranean or Middle-Eastern descent (also known as Mizrahim), but actually comes from the Hebrew word for Spain: Sepharad.
    Though estimates vary, historians believe at least 200,000 Jews lived in Spain before the Catholic monarchs Isabella and Ferdinand ordered them to convert to the Catholic faith or leave the country.
    Many who refused were burnt at the stake.
    Up to 3.5 million people around the world are thought to have Sephardic (specifically Spanish-Jewish) ancestry.
    The citizenship law is the latest step in Spain's modern efforts to atone for its past harsh treatment of Jews.  
    One major step was a visit to a Madrid synagogue in 1992 by Spain's former King Juan Carlos to recognize "injustices of the past."



    The Spanish Inquisition

    The basic accusation of the Inquisition was that Jews who converted to Christianity were still secretly Jewish.

    Crash Course in Jewish History Part 48: The InquisitionJewish converts to Christianity would be arrested and accused of not being true Christians. They wouldn’t even know who was accusing them; evidence would be presented against them in secret. Then they would be tortured until they confessed to being heretics.

    Then, once they confessed, they would be killed. The usual form was burning at the stake, though if they were willing to kiss the cross, they would be spared the horrible pain of burning and would be strangled instead.

    Read more


    Inquisition torture
    by the monarchy and
    the Catholic Church

    True to character, now Spain has joined other European Union countries in demonizing Israel, and calling for its partition to create an Arab terror state on Jewish land. 

    They did not want Jews in Spain, but they resent the survivors when they create a modern and democratic society in their ancient Biblical land.  Spain has been notorious for its funding of anti-Israel activities.

    Read more

    In the absence of Jews, non-Jews dress up as Jews to attract tourist money to former Jewish communities in Spain and Portugal
    Medellin is one of several towns in Spain and Portugal where - in the absence of Jews - locals dress up as Jews to play music to attract tourists interested in the town's Jewish past.  But there are no real resident Jews around anymore.  They expelled them or killed them.  The ultimate tourist fraud rooted in murder.
    JTA - In the center of the medieval Portuguese town of Medelim, two newlyweds in Sephardic (Jewish) wedding clothes are serenaded by a musical ensemble performing Ladino (Jewish) music.
    A band performing Ladino music at the Jewish and Christian Passover celebration in Medelim, Portugal, March, 2014. (Beira Baixa TV)
    The scene may have been familiar to someone living in Medelim 500 years ago, when the town had a large population of Sephardic Jews.
    But today there are no Jews in Medelim, their memory evoked solely by actors hired to play period roles during the municipally organized “Jewish and Christian Passover,” an annual cultural event held for the second time last month.
    Read more

    Not done with the Jews yet, the European Union decided to label and boycott products from the Jewish historical an biblical heartland - because they want the Muslim invader to take over that land. 
    In addition to that European countries continue to give moral and financial support to Muslim terrorists who kill Jews in Israel.
    Don't buy from Jews.
    Then in 1933, and now 2016

    EUROPEAN UNION DECIDES TO LABEL AND BOYCOTT JEWISH GOODS from Israeli Judea, Samaria, and Jerusalem on the anniversary of KRISTALLNACHT, the Nazi pogrom against German Jews of November 9, 1938. - The European Union shamelessly follows NAZI TRADITION, as they also boycotted Jewish businesses before implementing the Final Solution




    Partial list of major Jewish expulsions and mass slaughter of Jews in Europe for the past 2000 years

    Excerpts only, click on link at the end of list for more information:

    70 A.D.
    Roman Emperor Titus took Jerusalem - second revolt. Over one million Jews killed. 

    136 A.D.
    580,000 men destroyed, 985 towns destroyed - third revolt. 

    415 A.D.
    Bishop Severus burned the synagogue in the village of Magona.

    Bishop of Alexandria, St Cyrlil, expelled Jews from Alexandria and gave the mob all Jewish property.

    717 A.D.
    Jews had to wear special yellow garb. Originated in Islam. 

    1012 A.D.            
    Emperor Henry II of Germany expels Jews from Mainz, the beginning of persecutions against Jews in Germany.  

    1096 A.D.
    First Crusade. Crusaders massacre the Jews of the Rhineland. 

    1190 A.D.
    Massacre of Jews in England. 

    1290 A.D.
    Jews expelled from England. 

    1298 A.D.
    Massacre of thousands in Germany, in 146 localities. 

    1306 A.D.
    Expulsion from France. 

    1389 A.D.
    MASSACRES in Bohemia, Spain. 

    1421 A.D.
    270 JEWS BURNED AT THE STAKE. In the 14th and 15th centuries the Inquisition was more intense because the Church and State joined forces. Just being Jewish guaranteed persecution 
    1480 A.D.
    Inquisition in Spain - Jews and Christians burned at the stake. 

    1483 A.D.
    EXPULSIONS from Warsaw, Sicily, Lithuania, Portugal. 

    1492 A.D.

    1506 A.D.
    Murders in Lisbon - 4000, "conversos", men, women, and children thrown from windows to street mobs below, due to preaching by Dominicans against the Jews. 

    1510 A.D.
    EXPELLED from Brandenburg, Germany. 

    1516 A.D.
    Venice initiates the ghetto, the first in Christian Europe. 

    1569 A.D.
    POPE PIUS V ordered all Jews out of the Papal states.

    1593 A.D.
    EXPULSIONS from Italy and Bavaria. 

    1614 A.D.
    JEWS attacked and driven out of Frankfurt, Germany.

    1624 A.D.
    GHETTO established in Ferrara, Italy. 

    1648 A.D.
    Leader of the Cossacks, in the Ukraine massacres 100,000 Jews and destroyed 300 communities. 

    1655 A.D.
    Massacres of Jews in war against Sweden& Russia by Poland. 

    1715 A.D.
    POPE PIUS VI issues edict against Jews. 

    1768 A.D.
    20,000 Jews in Poland killed. 

    1805 A.D.
    MASSACRE of Jews in Algeria. 

    1881 A.D.
    POGROMS BEGAN. The word is of Russian origin. It designates attack, accompanied by destruction, looting of property, murder, rape. There were three major outbreaks in Russia. The word designates more particularly the attacks carried out by the Christian population. Each pogrom surpassed the other in savagery.
    KIEV, ODESSA; Here murder of whole families was a common occurrence. Partial data are available for 530 communities in which 887 major pogroms and 349 minor pogroms occurred. There were 60,000 dead and several times that many were wounded. 
    1882 A.D.

    1905 A.D.
    Russian pogroms continue. Also in Morocco, Ukraine, 300 dead. 

    1919 A.D.
    3000 Jews killed in Hungarian pogroms. 

    1920 A.D.
    Appearance of ADOLPH HITLER.

    1935 A.D.
    Hitler implements his Nuremberg Laws which lead to his Final Solution. 

    1938 A.D.
    Burning in AUSTRIA & GERMANY of Synagogues. Jews sent to concentration camps. Beginnings of the Holocaust. 

    1939 A.D.
    Germany overruns Poland. 

    1940 A.D.
    Gassing, shootings in Polish Ghettos (Jewish). 

    1941 A.D.
    EXPULSION of Jews from the German Reich to Poland. Riots against Jews in Iraq. 

    1942 A.D.
    Mass transports of Jews to Belgium & Holland. 

    1944 A.D.

    1945 A.D.
    HOLOCAUST Final Count: 6,000,000 Jews slaughtered.

    1946 A.D.
    Pogroms in Poland - 42 Jews murdered. 

    1948 A.D.

    Also Jewish intellectuals shot in Russia. 
    1952 A.D.
    Jews murdered byCommunists, and others disappear. Prague trials. Murder of Yiddish intellectuals in Russia and many sent to work camps.. 

    1968 A.D.
    Emigration of last remaining Jews in Poland.

    1970 A.D.
    Beginning of imprisonment in Russia of PRISONERS OF CONSCIENCE. ("Refuseniks")

    1980 A.D. Russian imprisonments carry on throughout the 70's to the 80's. 
    Read the whole summary of mass anti-Semitic attacks in Europe.  This is only the European scenePersecution, mass murder, and expulsions were also taking place against Jews living in lands ruled by Islam, until the re-establishment of the State of Israel.  More than a million Jewish refugees from Arab countries have fled to Israel.


    All European Life Died in Auschwitz

    Europe refused to save the talented, patriotic, and productive Jews. Today it submits to an invasion of Muslims who hate Europe and its culture, and who use violence to impose their views and lifestyle. 

    (Photo:  Barcelona former Jewish quarter.)

    Excerpt from a famous column written decades ago on a Spanish newspaper:
    We have exchanged the pursuit of peace of the Jews of Europe and their talent for a better future for their children, their determined clinging to life because life is holy, for those who pursue death, for people consumed by the desire for death for themselves and others, for our children and theirs.   What a terrible mistake was made by miserable Europe. 
    Read more of that column, and see other related articles on the death of Europe.
    The Inquisition established by Spain and the Catholic Church
    San Francisco - How Jewish pioneers turned it into a wealthy and tolerant city
    More on the Jewish history of San Francisco
    The disproportionate Jewish contributions to the world
    For such a tiny and discriminated-against minority, Jews have made a gigantic contribution to the world. 
    Albert Einstein






  • Composer
    Felix Mendelsohn









    THE FORGOTTEN REFUGEES - More than half of Israeli Jews have deep roots in the Middle East - not in Europe - and a million of them arrived as refugees from persecution and violence in Arab countries
    Mizrahi Nation

    Jewish refugees expelled from Arab countries arriving in Israel
    READ MORE on the Jewish refugees
    Also more information here:

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